Hawaiian Name: Ohia Lehua, Ohia
The Ohia is one of the most common Native Hawaiian Tree. An attribute to this plants commonality is that it can be found in a wide range of habitats and can range from small shrubs to 98 foot trees. This plant has distinct flowery tuffs that come in colors of red, pink, orange, white and yellow. The flowers are also sacred to the Hawaiian Lava god Pele. This common plant also is an essential part of the Hawaiian watershed The Hawaiians used the wood was used for flooring, firewood, and kapa( bark cloth) beaters.
Hawaiian Name: Palapalai, Palai
The palapalai fern is quite attractive and tends to prefer wetter shady areas. This plant was used by the Hawaiians to treat insanity and remains very popular in many hula leis and garments. The fern is sacred to the Hula god Laka and contains a fragrance that remains even when dried.
Hawaiian Names: Ki, Ti
This plant was another introduction by the Hawaiians to Hawaii. They used the Ti plant had a wide range of uses, ranging from, wrappings for food, thatching, medical purposes, plates, and clothes. The plant also was considered sacred to the god of agriculture ( Lono) and the godess of hula (Laka). An incredible demonstration of the use as a rain coat can be found here.
Hawaiian Name: Ekaha, Akaha
This is a unique looking plant with large banana leaf like fronds that take the shape of a birds nest. The Ekaha can often be found growing in rock crevices, or out of the branches of trees. The Hawaiians used this plant for medicine and the fronds were woven into Lau Hala mats.
Scientific Name: Hibiscus tiliaceus
Hawaiian Name Hau
The Hau plants normally looks like a twisting mess of curved branches and 5 pedaled flowers. These curved branches were often used in creating outriggers for canoes due to it’s shape and light weight. The plant was and still is very common and it’s bark was the primary plant used by the Hawaiians for cordage. However, the wood proved even more valuable to the Hawaiians as they would vigorously rub a smaller piece in a grove of a larger Hau branch to create fire. ( Photo by Forest and Starr)
Scientific Name: Pandanus tectorius
Hawaiian Name: Hala, Pu Hala
This plant is easily recognizable through its droopy leaves and the pineapple like appearance of it’s fruit. The mangrove like bottoms allows the hala to filter out small amounts of salt water and survive well on the coastline. The Hawaiians main use of this plant was it’s leaves. The leaves were used to weave, mats hats, plates, blankets, bags but most importantly they wove the sails of their voyaging canoes that carried them the thousands of miles to and from Hawaii.
Hawaiian Name: Manele, A’e
These trees can grow to the height of 80 ft tall and have an attractive leaf spread. The Hawaiians did not use the wood for lumber very much due to it’s weak strength. Instead the Hawaiians relied on the seeds for leis and the fruit was crushed and used as a soap.
Hawaiian Names: Ohe’e, Alahe’e
The Alahe’e was once very common in dry forests, and unlike many native plants, remains relatively common. The leaves are glossy green and hold out well against drought. The strong yet relatively light wood was used as digging stick ( ‘o’o) . These digging sticks were the primary farming tool of the Hawaiians and were used as a shovel and crowbar all in one.
Scientific Name: Pittosporum hosmeri
Hawaiian Name Aleurites moluccana
This common plant has distinct light colored leaves that help this plant stand out in a forest. Its Hawaiian translation is ” light” because it’s seeds were extensively burned due to its high oil content. The spreading crushed nuts in small ponds helped increase visibility when spear fishing. The nut was roasted and eaten as a dish called inamona, although eaten raw it is poisonous. The oil from the nuts treated surfboards with create a protective coating similar to a stain.
Hawaiian Names: Hawane, Loulu Noulu
With 19 species of Loulu in Hawaii, each island and environment seems to have it’s own type. The Hawaiians labeled all 19 species under the singe title of Loulu. Some species are endangered and most of the other ones are listed at risk. Some of types of Loulu were used by Hawaiians for thatching. Other types were eaten and had a taste similar to coconut.